Does the highway patrol really have a quota to fill?
Yes they do. However, it varies depending on the geographical area. Quotas are based on factors such as licensed driver populations, percentage of city land mass verses suburban land mass, statistical data ie: average number of infractions ticketed annually per capita population. There is actually “statition companies/corporations that compile this data for state and local government agencies. Additional secondary factors include the state/counties current debt, budget shortfalls, etc. Remember that tickets/infractions carry “finable penalties”..and that means revenues to the county/state. In Florida, the DMV is the third largest source of revenues for the state.
If you were in the USA, possibly Texas, how would you speak with the highway patrol if you were pulled over on the highway without your identification?
The same way I speak to anyone. Exactly as they earn. If the officer is being professional and polite, I shall be also. If he’s being a dick, I will only crack the window and say I have nothing to say without my lawyer. Having my ID is irrelevant, I know all the information on it, can quote it and my picture comes up on his screen in his car when he types in my DL# so he will know I am not lying when he goes to check the info.
How do highway patrol officers locate reported drunk drivers on the highways?
I have reported two in the last decade. One was apprehended while we were still behind him and the other one pulled into a swap meet and was outside state police jurisdiction by the time an officer could respond. Highway patrol officers locate reported drunk drivers when enough information is given to the dispatcher. Ideally, make and model of the vehicle and a license plate number is required. Just telling the dispatcher that a ‘late model white car’ is weaving all over the road is not enough. Just imagine yourself as the officer looking for the vehicle when you report it. What would you want to know if you had to identify the correct vehicle?
If an interstate accident elevates from accidental death to criminal vehicular homicide, would the highway patrol continue to lead the investigation?
Yes, in most cases they would. In my state the highway patrol (Illinois State Police) handle accidents that happen on the interstate system. They have some very talented specialists who are trained in traffic crash reconstruction. They record, collect and interpret evidence to present to the state's attorney for prosecution.
Is it standard procedure for highway patrol to light up just to move traffic out of their way?
If they are headed someplace where they have human life at risk, heck yeah! If they are headed to an in progress crime, or injured person, heck yeah!If they are making a donut run or something similar, hell no!
Do I have to fill out a accident report request that was sent to me? There wasn't damage to either of our cars
This depends on which state you live in and also who sent you the report request. It is highly unusual for a citizen to send a crash report to another citizen. If I were you I would not fill it out unless it came from a police agency. Even then I would be suspicious and follow Kathryn's answer below.